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We predict that tissues involved in resource allocation, such as the brain, thyroid and breast would likely be reservoirs for fetal cells (depicted as orange circles in maternal tissues). Here, we extend the concept of maternal‐offspring conflict beyond the womb to interactions between fetal cells and maternal tissues throughout the body both during and after pregnancy. We then use this framework to make predictions about the conditions under which the presence of fetal cells should have positive or negative effects on maternal health. Additional maternal samples were collected from the same individual (n = 16) at 10, 20, 30 WG, and at term. Most human studies that we report below tested for the presence or absence of male DNA/male cells in blood or tissue from female patients who have or have not previously given birth to a son.

There was no difference in stillbirths, major malformations, chorioamnionitis, 5-minute Apgar score, or cord blood pH. Although changes in the vaccination program have reduced pertussis morbidity in childhood, they have not affected the increased infection rate in adolescent and adult pertussis. In this review, we present an overview of the role of MAPKs signalling in morphological and functional differentiation of villous trophoblast.This leads to the prediction that the capacity of the maternal immune system to limit the abundance of fetal cells may have positive impacts on maternal health.

Also, consistent with the hypothesis that fetal cells contribute to ongoing maternal somatic maintenance, fetal cells have been identified in many healthy tissues in human mothers 10, 43, 44, 45 and rodent mothers 41, 42, 46, 47. If fetal cell manipulation of the maternal brain induces maternally suboptimal levels of resource transmission to offspring, maternal countermeasures such as immune targeting of fetal cells in the brain might also be expected, which could raise levels of inflammation in the brain. Maternal‐fetal conflict not only predicts the evolution of fetal adaptations to enhance resource flow to offspring, but also maternal countermeasures to limit that flow 3. Although the antibody response to a dose of Tdap in healthy nonpregnant women of child-bearing age and postpartum women occurs by day 14 and is suggestive of an anamnestic immune response, it may not be sufficiently rapid to protect infants in the first weeks of life.Mother's milk provides calories, nutrients, and immunological protection for offspring 50, 51; however, lactation is costly for the mother. In the context of pregnancy, resource conflict has led to the evolution of fetal manipulation of maternal systems to increase resource transfer via the placenta, and the evolution of maternal countermeasures to limit resource flow 3, 4.

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